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Agricultural water saving irrigation: not just saving water

Number of hits:3002019-04-27 18:59:53

China is a country with poor water resources. Water conservation has always been a theme in people's production and life. Agricultural irrigation is China's largest water user and currently accounts for about 60% of China's total water use. However, according to the data, the utilization coefficient of agricultural irrigation water in China is only 0.46, which means that only 100 tons of water is used in 100 tons of water, and the rest are vain.

This issue has also received more and more attention, and various regions have adopted a variety of water-saving irrigation measures. A few days ago, the reporter followed the media report group of the “Water Saving China Tour” of the Ministry of Water Resources and interviewed Beijing, Tianjin, Henan, Shaanxi and other places. I deeply realized that agricultural water saving irrigation is not just about saving water resources, but about agriculture. Development itself, including promoting industrial construction, saving labor costs, and improving the quality of agricultural products, is of great benefit.

From no watering conditions to the cultivation of mushrooms under the forest

The land of Xiyuezhuang Village, Wangkou Town, Jinghai County, Tianjin can be described as “the best use of the land”. The economic forests are densely lined up, and the mushroom sticks are neatly packed with rich mushrooms and golden mushrooms. The farmer who is picking the golden mushroom told the reporter that it is the harvest season and it will take another long time in a few days.

Mushrooms can be planted under the tree, thanks to the construction of a micro-sprinkler irrigation project between the trees in Xiyue Village last year. According to reports, this project covers an area of 300 mu, and integrates the introduction of deep well water-reducing constant pressure frequency conversion, pipeline water and sand removal, micro-spray irrigation and other technologies, and installs 35,550 sets of micro-sprinklers. "This is a water-deficient area. The six first-grade rivers in the vicinity are dry. It is impossible to develop the forest economy under the conditions." Dong Guoliang, secretary of Xiyue Village, told the reporter. After the micro-spray water-saving project is put into operation, the utilization rate of water can be greatly improved, making it possible to plant edible fungi. Farmers can earn about 10,000 yuan per mu by relying on edible fungi. In addition, micro-sprinkler irrigation regulates the microclimate of the woodland, making the forests here significantly better than other forests.

The trees are shaded and the water resources are poor. The woodland in Xiyuezhuang Village can only be empty. After the introduction of the water-saving irrigation project, the water that can't do anything can be used greatly and become another increase point for farmers.

Pouring from 7 people for 2 months to 1 person for 7 days

Located in the west bank of Huairou Reservoir, Qianxin Town, Huairou District, Huairou District, Beijing, is planted with 300 acres of fruit trees such as grapes and cherries. The orchard is irregular and high in the south and low in the north. The highest topographic difference is 11.9 meters. difficult. Since the construction of the automated remote drip irrigation project in 2006, this situation has changed dramatically. Lu Yanhuai, the person in charge of the orchard, told the reporter that in the past, the cost of watering was very high. Three people in a 300-acre orchard needed to be poured for two months. After using the drip irrigation system, only one person could operate the remote-controlled machine, and the orchard could be poured all over again in 7 days. , saving more than 70% of water.

Fuling County, Henan Province is the largest flower and tree production base in northern China. It is known as “the first county in China.” At present, the county has developed an area of 520,000 mu of flowers and trees, with an annual output value of 2.2 billion yuan, accounting for 39.3% of the total agricultural output value. Wang Fengrong, a farmer who contracted 300 acres of land to plant flowers and trees, told reporters that the planting of flowers and trees requires high irrigation conditions. The old irrigation method is far from being able to meet the requirements of modern flower production. "If you don't say anything, you will say that the labor cost is sprinkled. Drip irrigation technology can save 7,000 to 8,000 individual workers per year than flood irrigation. Moreover, it takes only a few hours for sprinkler irrigation to spray the ground. It is also incomparable in terms of efficiency, and it is also necessary to plant seedlings. Water supply to specific plots or plants can be easily achieved by using sprinkler irrigation or drip irrigation."

In the interview, the reporter heard that many people in charge of the agricultural base have calculated this account, and the water-saving project has significantly reduced the labor cost. From this perspective alone, the cost of a one-time investment in water-saving projects can be recovered in a few years.

From water to bacteria and pests to reducing pests and diseases

The Vegetable Demonstration Park in Yanliang District, Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province is also the scientific research base of the Northwest A&F University. The water-saving project consists of four parts: water source system, power and frequency conversion control system, water distribution system, atomized spraying in the greenhouse and drip irrigation system. Chang Zongtang, an associate researcher at the Northwest A&F University, told the reporter that when the flood is flooded, the greenhouse has a high humidity, which is suitable for the growth of pests and diseases. After using water-saving irrigation, the humidity in the greenhouse is minimized, and the leaf disease is reduced by 60% to 70%. If the disease is less pesticides, it can be used less, and the quality of agricultural products will naturally go up. Moreover, from the test point of view, the drip irrigation system is used to improve the utilization rate of water and fertilizer, and the soluble nutrient nutrient solution required by plants can be directly transported to the roots of plants, which can be more than 25% fat; local irrigation, scientific and reasonable water supply, so that the soil is not The knot is formed; in addition, the accumulated temperature in the shed is increased to promote plant growth.

The soil in the Ziyun Mountain area of Jixian County, Henan Province is particularly suitable for tobacco cultivation. However, due to the lack of water resources in the area, the water conservancy conditions are poor, and crops are harvested, which directly affects tobacco production. Since the establishment of the constant pressure sprinkler irrigation project, not only the production is stable, but also the quality of the tobacco leaves has been guaranteed. Local farmers said that constant pressure sprinkler irrigation and micro-irrigation are particularly suitable for tobacco irrigation because it is irrigated by river water, and the river water temperature is high, and water and fertilizer are not easy to cause tobacco leaf disease. Sprinkler irrigation and micro-spraying can wash away leaf aphids and reduce tobacco leaf insect pests. Moreover, evenly pouring, no water is accumulated on the slopes of the slopes, and the water in the ground area is avoided.

In the production of crops, water, fertilizer, pests and diseases are complementary. Through the rational use of water, the occurrence of pests and diseases can be reduced, and the utilization rate of fertilizers can be adjusted. This is the “green” road in the production of green food.
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